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Calculus

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 [gcide]:

Mathematics \Math'e*mat"ics\, noun [F. math['e]matiques, pl., L. mathematica, sing., Gr. ? (sc. ?) science. See {Mathematic}, and {-ics}.] That science, or class of sciences, which treats of the exact relations existing between quantities or magnitudes, and of the methods by which, in accordance with these relations, quantities sought are deducible from other quantities known or supposed; the science of spatial and quantitative relations.

Note: Mathematics embraces three departments, namely: 1. {Arithmetic}. 2. {Geometry}, including {Trigonometry} and {Conic Sections}. 3. {Analysis}, in which letters are used, including {Algebra}, {Analytical Geometry}, and {Calculus}. Each of these divisions is divided into pure or abstract, which considers magnitude or quantity abstractly, without relation to matter; and mixed or applied, which treats of magnitude as subsisting in material bodies, and is consequently interwoven with physical considerations.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 [gcide]:

Calculus \Cal"cu*lus\, noun; pl. {Calculi}. [L, calculus. See {Calculate}, and {Calcule}.]

1. (Med.) Any solid concretion, formed in any part of the body, but most frequent in the organs that act as reservoirs, and in the passages connected with them; as, biliary calculi; urinary calculi, etc.

2. (Math.) A method of computation; any process of reasoning by the use of symbols; any branch of mathematics that may involve calculation.

{Calculus of functions}, that branch of mathematics which treats of the forms of functions that shall satisfy given conditions.

{Calculus of operations}, that branch of mathematical logic that treats of all operations that satisfy given conditions.

{Calculus of probabilities}, the science that treats of the computation of the probabilities of events, or the application of numbers to chance.

{Exponential calculus}, that part of algebra which treats of exponents.

{Imaginary calculus}, a method of investigating the relations of real or imaginary quantities by the use of the imaginary symbols and quantities of algebra.

{Integral calculus}, a method which in the reverse of the differential, the primary object of which is to learn from the known ratio of the indefinitely small changes of two or more magnitudes, the relation of the magnitudes themselves, or, in other words, from having the differential of an algebraic expression to find the expression itself.

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) [wn]:

noun

1: a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body; "renal calculi can be very painful" [syn: {calculus}, {concretion}]

2: an incrustation that forms on the teeth and gums [syn: {tartar}, {calculus}, {tophus}]

3: the branch of mathematics that is concerned with limits and with the differentiation and integration of functions [syn: {calculus}, {infinitesimal calculus}]

Definitions retrieved from the Open Source DICT Webster's English and WordNet 3.0 dictionaries. Click here for database copyright information. This Open Source English dictionary is being served by a custom 404 handler on a \$16.99/month GoDaddy shared hosting account.

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